Lacrofer , Lactoferrin (LF), also known as lactotransferrin (LTF) is a multifunctional protein of the transferrin family. Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of about 80 kDa that is widely represented in various secretory fluids, such as milk, saliva, tears, and mucus. In addition to its iron-binding property, lactoferrin has antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities. Given these diverse functions, lactoferrin has been proposed as a potential therapy for several human diseases, including infections, cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and diabetes.

Lactoferrin was first isolated in 1930 from milk, and its iron-binding property was characterized in the early 1950s. Subsequent studies revealed that lactoferrin is also present in other secretory fluids, such as saliva, tears, and mucus. These diverse functions have prompted investigations into the use of lactoferrin as a therapy for human diseases.

Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein that is widely distributed in various secretory fluids, such as milk, saliva, tears, and mucus.

Benefits

Lactoferrin has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity against a wide range of bacteria, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well asfunghi and viruses. The mechanism of action of lactoferrin against bacteria is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve the binding of lactoferrin to bacterial cell surfaces, which leads to the interference with bacterial cell growth and/or function. In addition, lactoferrin has been shown to stimulate phagocytosis and enhance the bactericidal activity of macrophages.

Lactoferrin has also been shown to possess antiviral activity against a variety of viruses, including influenza virus, herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The mechanisms of action of lactoferrin against viruses are not fully understood, but it is thought that lactoferrin may bind to viral particles and prevent their attachment to host cells, or interfere with viral replication.

In addition to its antimicrobial activities, lactoferrin also has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. These activities are thought to be mediated by the ability of lactoferrin to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to modulate the inflammatory response.

Lactoferrin has also been shown to possess immunomodulatory activity. This activity is thought to be mediated by the ability of lactoferrin to bind to immune cells, such as macrophages and lymphocytes, and modulate their function.

Given these diverse activities, lactoferrin has been proposed as a potential therapy for several human diseases, including infections, cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and diabetes.

Infections

Lactoferrin has antimicrobial activity against a wide range of bacteria, fungi, and viruses, and has been proposed as a treatment for infections caused by these microorganisms.

Side effects

Lactoferrin is generally well tolerated, with few side effects reported. The most common side effect is gastrointestinal upset, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Cancer

Lactoferrin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities, and has been proposed as a treatment for cancer.

Clinical studies

A number of clinical studies have investigated the use of lactoferrin for the treatment of cancer. These studies have generally shown that lactoferrin is well tolerated and has some efficacy against various types of cancer, including leukemia, breast cancer, gastric cancer, and colorectal cancer. However, larger and more well-designed clinical studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of lactoferrin for the treatment of cancer.

Inflammatory bowel disease

Lactoferrin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities, and has been proposed as a treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Diabetes

Lactoferrin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities, and has been proposed as a treatment for diabetes.

Pharmacokinetics

The pharmacokinetics of lactoferrin have been studied in a variety of different populations, including healthy adults, cancer patients, and patients with IBD.

The majority of the studies have shown that lactoferrin is rapidly absorbed after oral administration, and is widely distributed throughout the body. Lactoferrin is mainly eliminated by urinary excretion, and has a short half-life of approximately 2 hours.

Dosage and administration

The recommended dosage of lactoferrin varies depending on the indication being treated. For the treatment of infections, the recommended dosage is 2-3 grams per day. For the treatment of cancer, the recommended dosage is 10-20 grams per day. For the treatment of IBD, the recommended dosage is 500 mg per day. And for the prevention or treatment of diabetes, the recommended dosage is 500 mg per day.

Lactoferrin should be taken with meals to improve absorption.