Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) is a polypeptide hormone that is structurally similar to insulin. IGF-1 is produced primarily by the liver in response to growth hormone (GH) stimulation. GH is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and regulates linear growth and cell proliferation. IGF-1 is an anabolic hormone that promotes tissue growth and regeneration. It also plays an important role in metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and body composition.

IGF-1 binds to its receptor (IGF1R) on cell surfaces, which leads to several downstream signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. IGF-1R is a member of the tyrosine kinase receptor family, which means it has the ability to phosphorylate tyrosine residues on proteins. This is a key step in cellular signaling, as it allows proteins to interact with each other and ultimately leads to changes in cell behavior.

IGF-1 plays an important role in childhood growth and development, but its levels decline with age. Low IGF-1 levels have been associated with age-related diseases such as frailty, sarcopenia (age-related loss of muscle mass), and osteoporosis. IGF-1 has also been linked to cancer risk, as high levels of IGF-1 are often found in cancerous cells. However, it is unclear whether IGF-1 is a cause or consequence of cancer.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in using IGF-1 as a therapeutic agent. IGF-1 has shown promise in treating a variety of conditions, including frailty, muscle loss, and osteoporosis. It is also being studied as a potential cancer treatment. However, more research is needed to determine the safety and effectiveness of IGF-1 therapy.

Benefits

  1. Helps to Maintain Muscle Mass

IGF-1 is involved in muscle growth and regeneration. It promotes the differentiation of muscle cells and the production of new muscle proteins. IGF-1 also helps to prevent muscle wasting by inhibiting the breakdown of muscle proteins.

  1. Enhances wound healing

IGF-1 plays an important role in tissue repair and regeneration. It stimulates the proliferation of skin cells and collagen production, which leads to faster wound healing. IGF-1 has also been shown to improve healing time after surgery.

  1. May protect against age-related diseases

Low IGF-1 levels have been linked to age-related diseases such as frailty, sarcopenia, and osteoporosis. IGF-1 may help to prevent or delay the onset of these conditions.

  1. May have anti-cancer effects

IGF-1 has been shown to inhibit the growth of cancer cells in test tube and animal studies. It is thought to do this by inducing cell death, inhibiting cell proliferation, and inducing tumor regression. However, it is not yet clear whether IGF-1 has the same effects in humans. More research is needed in this area.

IGF-1 therapy has been associated with several side effects, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Cancer:

High levels of IGF-1 are often found in cancerous cells. However, it is unclear whether IGF-1 is a cause or consequence of cancer. Some studies have shown that high levels of IGF-1 may promote tumor growth, while other studies have shown that IGF-1 may suppress tumor growth. More research is needed to determine the role of IGF-1 in cancer development and progression.

Diabetes:

IGF-1 therapy has been associated with an increased risk of diabetes. One study found that people who received IGF-1 therapy were more likely to develop diabetes than those who did not receive treatment. Another study found that people with preexisting diabetes were more likely to experience a worsening of their blood sugar control after receiving IGF-1 therapy.

Cardiovascular Disease:

IGF-1 therapy has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. One study found that people who received IGF-1 therapy were more likely to develop heart disease than those who did not receive treatment. Another study found that people with preexisting heart disease were more likely to experience a worsening of their symptoms after receiving IGF-1 therapy.

Pharmacokinetics

When IGF-1 is administered intravenously, it is rapidly cleared from the circulation. The half-life of IGF-1 is approximately 2 hours. This means that 50% of the drug will be cleared from the body within 2 hours of administration.

IGF-1 is also cleared from the body through the kidneys. The renal clearance rate of IGF-1 is about 10 mL/min. This means that 10 mL of the drug will be cleared from the body every minute through the kidneys.

Dosage and administration

IGF-1 is available as a powder that must be reconstituted with sterile water prior to use. It is typically injected intravenously or intramuscularly.

The recommended dose of IGF-1 varies depending on the indication being treated. For example, the recommended dose for people with growth hormone deficiency is 0.3 mg/kg/day. This means that a person weighing 70 kg would receive 21 mg of IGF-1 per day.