What is Cylert?

Cylert (pemolin) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the amphetamine class used to treat attention deficit disorder (ADD) and narcolepsy. It was withdrawn from the US market in 2005 due to decreased sales due to concerns about liver toxicity.

Health Benefits

Cylert has been shown to be effective in the treatment of attention deficit disorder (ADD) and narcolepsy.

Amphetamines, including Cylert, have also been shown to improve task performance in a variety of tasks, including those involving sustained attention and vigilance, working memory, and executive function.

In addition, amphetamines have been shown to increase wakefulness and reduce fatigue.

Possible Side Effects

The most common side effects associated with Cylert include:

nausea

vomiting

diarrhea

stomach pain

loss of appetite

weight loss

headache

dizziness

tremors or shaking hands or feet

anxiety

nervousness

restlessness

insomnia

dry mouth

sweating

changes in sex drive or ability.

Rare side effects include:

seizures

psychotic episodes

hallucinations

aggressive or hostile behavior

confusion

paranoia.

Serious side effects include:

heart attack

stroke

sudden death

worsening of angina (chest pain)

increase in blood pressure

Dosages

The usual starting dose of Cylert for adults with attention deficit disorder is 18.75 mg daily.

The dose may be increased by 18.75 mg every week until the desired response is achieved or side effects become problematic.

For narcolepsy, the usual starting dose is 37.5 mg daily.

The dose may be increased by 37.5 mg every week until the desired response is achieved or side effects become problematic.

Cylert should be taken with food to minimize stomach upset.

It is important to take Cylert exactly as prescribed and not to skip doses or stop taking it abruptly, as this can cause withdrawal symptoms such as fatigue, depression, and irritability.

Interactions

Cylert can interact with a variety of medications and should not be used in combination with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or tricyclic antidepressants.

It can also interact with other CNS stimulants and increase the risk of side effects such as agitation, anxiety, dizziness, headache, hyperactivity, and insomnia.

Cylert can also interact with a variety of medications that affect liver function and should be used with caution in patients with liver disease.

If you are taking Cylert, it is important to tell your doctor about all other medications you are taking, including over-the-counter drugs, vitamins, and herbal supplements.

Mechanism of Action

Cylert works by increasing levels of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain.

These neurotransmitters are involved in the regulation of attention, learning, and other cognitive functions.

Cylert also has a mild effect on serotonin levels.

Pharmacokinetics

Cylert is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and reaches peak levels in the blood within 2-3 hours.

It has a half-life of 10-12 hours.

Only about 5% of an oral dose is excreted unchanged in the urine.

Most of the drug is metabolized by the liver and excreted as inactive metabolites in the urine.

Conclusion Cylert is a central nervous system stimulant used to treat attention deficit disorder (ADD) and narcolepsy. It can cause a variety of side effects, some of which can be serious. It should be used with caution in patients with liver disease or other medical conditions.

Alternatives to Cylert

There are a number of other medications that can be used to treat attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy, including:

Adderall

Ritalin

Vyvanse

Concerta

Strattera

Provigil

Nuvigil.

Clinical Trials

The FDA has conducted two clinical trials of Cylert in the treatment of attention deficit disorder.

Both trials demonstrated that Cylert was effective in the treatment of ADD, with a reduction in symptoms such as restlessness, impulsivity, and hyperactivity.

The most common side effects reported in these trials were stomach upset, loss of appetite, weight loss, headache, and insomnia.

Cylert has also been studied in the treatment of narcolepsy.

One small trial demonstrated that Cylert was effective in reducing daytime sleepiness and improving quality of life in patients with narcolepsy.

Another trial showed that Cylert improved sleep latency (the time it takes to fall asleep) in patients with narcolepsy.

The most common side effects reported in these trials were insomnia, headache, and stomach upset.