What is Clomiphene Citrate (Clomid)?

Clomiphene citrate, or Clomid, is a medication that is commonly used for the treatment of infertility. Clomid is a SERM (selective estrogen receptor modulator), and it works by blocking estrogen receptors at the hypothalamus, which in turn helps to stimulate ovulation.

Health Benefits

Clomid is most commonly used for the treatment of infertility, particularly in women who have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Clomid can also be used to treat other causes of ovulatory dysfunction, such as hormonal imbalances. In addition, Clomid may be used off-label for treating certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer.

Risks and Side Effects

The most common side effects associated with Clomid are hot flashes, headaches, bloating, and mood swings. More serious side effects include ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), which can be life-threatening. OHSS symptoms include abdominal pain and swelling, shortness of breath, and rapid weight gain. If you experience any of these symptoms, you should seek medical attention immediately.

Dosages and Preparations

Clomid is available in tablets of 50 milligrams (mg). The usual starting dose is 50 mg, taken for five days, beginning on the fifth day of your menstrual cycle. Your doctor may increase your dose if you do not ovulate after the first course of treatment. The maximum recommended dose is 100 mg.

If you are using Clomid for the treatment of cancer, the usual starting dose is 25 mg, taken once daily. Your doctor may increase your dose as needed.

Clomid should be taken at about the same time each day. You can take it with or without food. If you miss a dose, you should take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, you should skip the missed dose and continue on your regular dosing schedule. You should not take two doses at the same time.

Interactions and Precautions

Clomid can interact with other medications, and it can have harmful effects if taken during pregnancy. If you are taking any other medications, you should talk to your doctor before taking Clomid. You should also let your doctor know if you have any allergies, or if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

If you have any questions about Clomid, or if you would like more information, please talk to your doctor or pharmacist.

Mechanism of Action

The exact mechanism of action of Clomid is not fully understood, but it is thought to work by blocking estrogen receptors at the hypothalamus, which in turn helps to stimulate ovulation.

Pharmacokinetics

Clomiphene citrate is rapidly absorbed after oral administration, and peak concentrations are achieved within about an hour. It is extensively bound to plasma proteins, and it has a half-life of about five days.

Alternatives to Clomid

There are several other medications that can be used to treat infertility, such as gonadotropins and letrozole. If you have PCOS, your doctor may also recommend lifestyle changes, such as weight loss and exercise, to help improve your fertility.

Clinical Trials

A number of clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Clomid for the treatment of infertility. The results of these studies are mixed, but overall they suggest that Clomid is effective in stimulating ovulation in women with PCOS and other forms of ovulatory dysfunction.

Symptoms of an Overdose

The most common symptom of an overdose of Clomid is hot flashes. Other possible symptoms include headaches, bloating, and mood swings. If you experience any of these symptoms, you should seek medical attention immediately.

Chemistry

Clomiphene citrate is a white to pale yellow, crystalline powder. It is insoluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol, and freely soluble in acetone. The chemical structure of clomiphene citrate is:

Clomid (clomiphene citrate) is a synthetic estrone sulfate that is structurally similar to the naturally occurring hormone, estrogen. Clomid binds to estrogen receptors in the hypothalamus, which helps to stimulate ovulation.